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FEEDING E ARM...

Section 15...

Folded Hybrid and Magic Tees and Transducers...

Theory MDL produces a broad line of magic tees to fit a variety of waveguide sizes. In most MDL tees, the collinear arms are folded to form a common wall at either the broad waveguide surface or the narrow waveguide surface. These are commonly called E or H plane folded tees to differentiate them from the classic magic tee. MDL's E and H plane tees...

The collinear arms are 180 out of phase....

FEEDING H ARM...

The collinear arms are in phase....

are electrically identical to the magic tees in theory, and generally superior in performance. To eliminate confusion in designating various waveguide ports, the illustrations at the left indicate the correct terminology and the phase relationships. The need for H plane tees arose with the advent of the differential circulator. The compact E plane tees were developed for antenna projects and other programs with space limitations. The generally improved performance of the new folded tees over the existing magic tee designs resulted in their use in many other waveguide circuits. Mitered H plane tees were developed for use in single sideband generators, image rejection mixers and sub-assemblies. Because of their configuration, an even greater reduction in package size is possible. The tees are true hybrid couplers when all the ports are reflectionless. Feeding the E or H arms results in an equal power split in the collinear arms while the fourth port is isolated to a high degree. Both the power division and E to H isolation are achieved by physical...

symmetry. The equal power split property is easily visualized by a study of the structure of the tee the isolation can be explained by a simple vector-mechanical analogy. However, newcomers in the microwave field are not generally aware that feeding one of the collinear arms creates an equal power split between the E and H ports, while the other collinear arm remains isolated. The physical appearance of the tee makes this phenomenon even more unexpected, and may be the reason for the name "magic" tee. Perhaps not obvious to microwave novices is the ability of any four-port tee junction, when used as a simple power divider with either the E or H arms terminated, to exhibit much better power balance characteristics than the simpler symmetrical three-port tee...

junction. This is true in most application...

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